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Maptalk-Digest Friday, December 18 1998 Volume 98 : Number 497

Re: MAP: Today in the history of the drug war
    From:  (Matt Elrod)
Fwd: Drug Test Machine
    From: Mark Greer <>
Fwd: drug war clock
    From: Mark Greer <>
Maptalk List issues
    From: "McNamara, Mark P." <>
SENT: Re: Legalization argument evasive, misleading
    From: Mike Gogulski <>
RE: Maptalk List issues
    From: "Cliff Schaffer" <>
Do Embryos Turn on, Tune in, Drop out in Infertile Women?
    From: 
ART: Illegal plant grown for medicine, man claims
    From: 
OPINION: Money-laundering inquiries could invade your privacy 
    From: 


----------------------------------------------------------------------

Subj: Re: MAP: Today in the history of the drug war
From:  (Matt Elrod)
Date: Thu, 17 Dec 1998 08:20:48 -0800

December 17, 1973

   Dr. Maurice LeClair, deputy minister of health, confirmed that Health
   Department officials had been ordered to make no comments on the final
   report of the LeDain commission on the non-medical use of drugs.

------------------------------

Subj: Fwd: Drug Test Machine
From: Mark Greer <>
Date: Thu, 17 Dec 1998 10:40:05 -0800

>X-Authentication-Warning:americium.baremetal.com: mapinc set sender to 
> using -f
>Date: Wed, 16 Dec 1998 22:16:13 -0500
>From: "Van E. Estes, III" <>
>Organization: Apple Country Realty
>X-Mailer: Mozilla 4.08 [en] (Win95; I)
>To: , 
>Subject: Drug Test Machine
>
>To the Editor,
>
>To those who feel they have nothing to fear from the Drug-Test machine I
>can only say good luck.  With a 10% false positive rate, the only way
>that you have nothing to fear, is to stay away from Jamaica.  I have
>been subject to random drug testing on numerous occasions during my
>employment with the Federal Aviation Administration.  On all occasions,
>the preliminary screening has been by EMIT, but the error rate is so
>high, and the consequences of a false positive so great, that positive
>results must be confirmed with GC/MS.  Without confirmation, many
>innocent individuals would have been subjected to prosecution (and
>persecution) for no reason.
>
>Van Estes
>Former Radar Unit Chief
>Asheville, NC
>

Mark Greer
Executive Director
DrugSense

http://www.drugsense.org
http://www.mapinc.org

------------------------------

Subj: Fwd: drug war clock
From: Mark Greer <>
Date: Thu, 17 Dec 1998 10:11:35 -0800

Matt and all:

We will do this if  Mike, Chuck, or whoever can provide a web page or link to a
factual source for the numbers cited. We have been unable to find a credible
source for these claims and would rather be unassailable in our facts than show
big numbers.

>Subject: drug war clock
>
>>From: "chuck beyer" <>
>>To: "DRCTalk Reformers' Forum" <>
>>Subject: drug war clock
>>Date: Wed, 16 Dec 1998 12:17:17 -0800
>>X-MSMail-Priority: Normal
>>X-Mailer: Microsoft Outlook 8.5, Build 4.71.2173.0
>>X-MimeOLE: Produced By Microsoft MimeOLE V5.00.0810.800
>>Importance: Normal
>>Reply-To: 
>>Sender: 
>>
>>      If Mark Greer from "Drug Sense" is on this list serve I wanted to point
out
>>that the Drug war clock is a most effective tool . It would be far more
>>effective however if it displayed the other 35 Billion spent by individual
>>states bringing the total from 15 on the present clock to $50 Billion
>> enough to put a serious dent in world hunger or enough to a man on Pluto)
>>

Mark Greer
Executive Director
DrugSense

http://www.drugsense.org
http://www.mapinc.org

------------------------------

Subj: Maptalk List issues
From: "McNamara, Mark P." <>
Date: Thu, 17 Dec 1998 20:26:05 -0600

I recently received a snail-mail from NORML, and in it they list the
"Top Ten Bad Guys of Marijuana Prohibition" or something like that. One
of the entries mentioned that the person "carries water for the NRA". I
know no offence was intended as I am sure none was intended in the
posting of an NRA alert accompanied by the statement "And no I'm not a
member.  Don't worry".

I am.

It seems that people assume that if you are anti-prohibition then you
must be anti-gun, but to me that would be philosophically inconsistent.
To my way of thinking, you cannot take the U.S. Consitution a-la-carte.
If you wish to have the protection of the first, fourth, fifth, and
sixth amendments, you must respect the rights of those to whom the
second amendment is dear. Likewise, if you hold the second amendment to
be the most important (the argument is that it protects the others), you
must respect the rest, even when you disagree on how those rights are
being exercised.

If we must, let's agree to disagree. I do not wish to get involved in a
debate on this matter, let's just keep in mind that there are reasonable
people on this list that will disagree on non-drug-prohibition topics
like gun control, abortion, public school vouchers, and for some of us
these other issues are just as important as ending drug prohibition. 

Sincerly,
Mark McNamara
A member of the NRA, NORML, the SCCA, and the Libertarian Party of
Missouri

------------------------------

Subj: SENT: Re: Legalization argument evasive, misleading
From: Mike Gogulski <>
Date: Thu, 17 Dec 1998 21:45:29 -0500

>Date: Thu, 17 Dec 1998 15:25:09 -0800
>X-Authentication-Warning:americium.baremetal.com: mapinc set sender to
 using -f
>From: 
>To: 
>Subject: #M# SENT: Re: Legalization argument evasive, misleading
>Sender: 
>Reply-To: 
>
>Newshawk: 
>
>XPubdate: Thu, 17 Dec 1998
>Source: San Antonio Express-News (TX)
>Contact: 
>XWebsite: http://www.expressnews.com/
>Forum: http://data.express-news.net:2080/eshare/server?action4
>XCopyright: 1998 San Antonio Express-News
>
>
>Author:
>
>Dear San Antonio Express-News Editors:
>
>Al Ronnfeldt claims that the argument for legalizing drugs is a
>non-sequitor, "so flawed that it is intuitively obvious that it is
>wrong" ("Legalization argument evasive, misleading" -- 12/15/98). Of
>course, it is also "intuitively obvious" that the Earth is flat and
>orbited by the Sun. While we're on the topic of non-sequitors -- Mr.
>Ronnfeldt acknowledges that drug enforcers have accidentally killed
>innocent people in the course of their work. Yet he supports his
>argument in favor of the drug war by posing the question "What is the
>price tag of a human life?" Apparently, the answer is the "price tag"
>varies depending on who's doing the killing.
>
>Lastly, Mr. Ronnfeldt misses the strongest argument of all for
>prohibition: it has created a booming market in drug trafficking
>which, according to the United Nations, now accounts for eight percent
>of total world trade.
>
>Investors take note!
>
>Craig Schroer
>--snip--
>

------------------------------

Subj: RE: Maptalk List issues
From: "Cliff Schaffer" <>
Date: Thu, 17 Dec 1998 21:00:42 -0800

I have been a member of the NRA myself, for about the last forty years, off
and on.

> -----Original Message-----
> From:  []On
> Behalf Of McNamara, Mark P.
> Sent: Thursday, December 17, 1998 6:26 PM
> To: ''
> Subject: MAP: Maptalk List issues
>
>
> I recently received a snail-mail from NORML, and in it they list the
> "Top Ten Bad Guys of Marijuana Prohibition" or something like that. One
> of the entries mentioned that the person "carries water for the NRA". I
> know no offence was intended as I am sure none was intended in the
> posting of an NRA alert accompanied by the statement "And no I'm not a
> member.  Don't worry".
>
> I am.
>
> It seems that people assume that if you are anti-prohibition then you
> must be anti-gun, but to me that would be philosophically inconsistent.
> To my way of thinking, you cannot take the U.S. Consitution a-la-carte.
> If you wish to have the protection of the first, fourth, fifth, and
> sixth amendments, you must respect the rights of those to whom the
> second amendment is dear. Likewise, if you hold the second amendment to
> be the most important (the argument is that it protects the others), you
> must respect the rest, even when you disagree on how those rights are
> being exercised.
>
> If we must, let's agree to disagree. I do not wish to get involved in a
> debate on this matter, let's just keep in mind that there are reasonable
> people on this list that will disagree on non-drug-prohibition topics
> like gun control, abortion, public school vouchers, and for some of us
> these other issues are just as important as ending drug prohibition.
>
> Sincerly,
> Mark McNamara
> A member of the NRA, NORML, the SCCA, and the Libertarian Party of
> Missouri
>

------------------------------

Subj: Do Embryos Turn on, Tune in, Drop out in Infertile Women?
From: 
Date: Fri, 18 Dec 1998 08:28:24 -0600 (CST)

Here's something I came across regarding mj and fertility.

- --------------------------
Do Embryos Turn on, Tune in, Drop out in Infertile Women?

From The Journal of NIH Research, Volume 9: May 1997 

http://www.unc.edu/~wbollenb/cannabinoid.html

[Fig. 1] Four-cell (left) and blastocyst-stage (right) mouse embryos 
have brain-type cannabinoid receptors, which appear reddish-brown after 
immunostaining with an antibody against the receptor's amino-terminal 
region. Concentrations in the uterus of the receptor's endogenous 
ligand, anandamide, may regulate the timing of implantation. 
Abbreviations: tr, trophectoderm; icm, inner cell mass. [Reprinted with 
permission from Z.-M. Yang et al., Bio. Reprod. 55, 756 (1996).] 

Like a software designer who reuses odd bits of earlier programs in 
unexpected ways, evolution has often placed particular combinations of 
molecules and their receptors in very different tissues. In the newest 
twist on this theme, researchers in Kansas and Minnesota have found that 
anandamide--the natural ligand of the brain receptors that mediate the 
psychotropic effects of marijuana--may play an important role in the 
female reproductive system in mammals. In fact, they suggest, altered 
regulation of anandamide concentrations in the uterus might underlie 
some cases of unexplained female infertility in humans. 

Much as the human body produces natural opioids (endorphins) that are 
the natural ligand for the opiate receptors in the brain, so the body 
produces the arachidonic-acid derivative anandamide as a ligand for the 
two classes of cannabinoid receptors that researchers have identified: 
brain-type receptors (CBI-R), which are in fact found in many body 
tissues, and spleen-type receptors (CB2-R), which are found only in 
cells of the lymphoid system which includes lymphocytes, macrophages, 
and mast cells. Both receptors act through inhibitory guanine-nucleotide 
binding proteins (G proteins). It is through the brain-type receptor 
that [delta]9-tetrahydrocannabinol ([delta]9-THC), the active ingredient 
in marijuana, exerts its psychotropic, sleep-inducing, tranquilizing, 
pain-lulling, and other effects on the nervous system. 

Anandamide--named for the Sanskrit word for "bliss"--was identified in 
1992 by William Devane--then of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, now 
of the University of Wisconsin School of Pharmacy in Madison--and his 
colleagues in Israel and Scotland. The researchers isolated anandamide 
from pigs' brains and found that it displaced the binding of 
radiolabeled [delta]9-THC to the cannabinoid receptor. They reported in 
the Dec. 18, 1992, issue of Science that anandamide is the endogenous 
ligand of the brain cannabinoid receptor, which Devane and Allyn Howlett 
of St. Louis University had identified in 1988. 

Now, in the April 15 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of 
Sciences (PNAS), Sudhansu Dey and Bibhash Paria of the University of 
Kansas Medical Center in Kansas City and Harald Schmid and his 
colleagues at the University of Minnesota's Hormel Institute in Austin 
report that the concentrations of anandamide in the mouse uterus change 
during early pregnancy, suggesting that the molecule might regulate 
embryonic implantation. Moreover, "the mouse uterus contains 
orders-of-magnitude higher concentrations of anandamide than does its 
brain," says Dey. 

Previously, Dey and his colleagues had shown that the gene encoding 
CB1-R, the brain-type cannabinoid receptor, is expressed in the mouse 
uterus and embryo around the time of implantation and that radioactive 
anandamide binds to embryos cultured in Vitro. In the October 1996 issue 
of Biology of Reproduction, the researchers reported that immunostaining 
of polyacrylamide gels for the receptor is more intense in samples from 
mouse embryos than in those from mouse brains. They also reported that 
agonists of the cannabinoid receptor-including anandamide-can prevent 
the normal development of preimplantation embryos in vitro. 

In the April 15 PNAS paper, Dey, Schmid, and their colleagues described 
measuring anandamide concentrations in lipid extracts of mouse uterus 
and mouse brain by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. They found that 
uterine tissue contained an anandamide concentration of as much as 20 
nanomoles (nmol) per gram; in contrast, brain tissue contained only 
10-15 picomoles (pmol) per gram. 

Further, the researchers reported that uterine anandamide concentrations 
vary during either pregnancy or experimentally induced pseudopregnancy, 
with the lowest concentrations occurring around the time of implantation 
and the highest occurring during the time that the uterus becomes 
nonreceptive for implantation. For example, at day 5 after 
conception--when mouse embryos usually implant into the uterine 
wall--the researchers found anandamide concentrations of 8 nmol/g 
between implantation sites and approximately 2 nmol/g at implantation 
sites. At day 7--when further implantation no longer occurs-the 
researchers measured anandamide concentrations of 20 nmol/g between 
implantation sites. 

Based on these findings, "we believe that [a reduced concentration of] 
uterine anandamide is critical in opening the window of opportunity for 
implantation to occur," Dey says. He suggests that the embryo induces a 
regional decline in anandamide concentration in the uterus to levels 
that permit its own further development. This proposal is not 
unexpected, inasmuch as he and other researchers have found that the 
embryo induces a variety of other changes in the uterus in preparation 
for implantation (see February issue, page 41). 

"In most [mammalian] species there is preimplantation death of embryos," 
Dey says. "This ligand-receptor combination may help identify the 
superior embryo" in a manner yet to be discovered, he says, allowing 
only the fittest embryos to implant. Or the 
anandamide-cannabinoid-receptor system may ensure that the embryo and 
uterus are both at the proper stage of activity and receptivity for 
implantation. 

When Dey and his colleagues used a mini-osmotic pump to introduce a 
synthetic cannabinoid ligand into mated female mice during the 
preimplantation phase of pregnancy-thus raising concentration of the 
ligand in the uterus--implantation did not take place. This effect was 
reversed by administering the synthetic ligand with a 
cannabinoid-receptor antagonist, confirming the role of the cannabinoid 
receptor, they reported in the PNAS paper. 

The human uterus also expresses the brain-type cannabinoid receptor, Dey 
notes. He has found that human endometrium can synthesize anandamide, 
and he intends to investigate the possible role of anandamide in 
regulating human fertility. 

Despite the suggested role for anandamide in regulating implantation, 
cannabinoids from marijuana are not known conclusively to cause 
infertility or problems with implantation in women who use the drug, 
says Jag Khalsa of the National Institute on Drug Abuse in Rockville, 
Md. This does not surprise Dey, because ingested or inhaled cannabinoids 
are rapidly degraded by enzymes in the liver. However, an unpublished 
study by the Kansas researcher suggests that inhibition of the body's 
detoxification system--cytochrome P450--in mice produces higher 
concentrations of exogenous cannabinoids in the uterus, which interferes 
with early embryonic development. Because cannabinoids can inhibit 
embryo development before implantation, a woman who takes these 
chemicals in may not realize that she had conceived, says Dey. 

Cannabinoid receptors and anandamide appear to be important in the male 
reproductive system as well-although Khalsa notes that any effects of 
marijuana on male fertility are still unproven. These receptors exist in 
human sperm and in the vas deferens, says Alexandros Makriyannis of the 
University of Connecticut School of Pharmacy in Storrs. Cannabinoid 
receptors can also be found on sea urchin sperm, says Herbert Schuel of 
the State University of New York at Buffalo. He and his colleagues 
reported in the Aug. 4, 1994, issue of PNAS that anandamide and [delta]9
- -THC block fertilization in sea urchins by preventing the acrosome 
reaction, the rupture of a sac of lytic enzymes that has to occur for 
the sperm to penetrate the outer coating of the egg. 

The sea urchin finding demonstrates that cannabinoid receptors and their 
ligands go back at least 600 million years in evolutionary history, 
Schuel says. In fact, cannabinoid signaling may be even older--there is 
evidence that cannabinoids affect the behavior of insects, and the 
physiology of some protozoans, he says. 

Why would a receptor system found in the brain be used in so many other 
tissues? "It is not uncommon to have a receptor used in two very 
different organs," says Billy Martin of Virginia Commonwealth University 
in Richmond. Opioid receptors occur in both the brain and the gut, he 
notes. Schuel concurs. "There is nothing unique about the signals used 
in the nervous system," he says. Virtually all of the neurotransmitters 
that are found in the brain function in the interaction between egg and 
sperm, says Schuel. 

"One of the things that struck me, as a newcomer to the field, is that 
most of the people who work on cannabinoids are fixated on the 
psychoactive properties [of the compounds]," Schuel says. "They lose 
track of the fact that this signaling mechanism operates in other places 
in the body," such as in the reproductive and immune systems. In the 
latter, researchers have found that cannabinoids inhibit the activity of 
macrophages and lymphocytes, he says. 

As a lipid, anandamide 'is chemically a very innocuous compound," 
Makriyannis says--so much so that it has been hard for researchers to 
believe that it has such powerful effects. The molecular structures of 
[delta]9-THC and anandamide appear very different--yet they bind to the 
same receptor active site, he says. The differences may be important, 
says Devane, who notes that Christian Giaume of INSERM in Paris reported 
in the Aug. 17, 1995, issue of Nature that anandamide inhibits ion 
conductance across gap junctions between cultured striatal astrocytes, 
an effect that is not mimicked by other cannabinoids nor blocked by 
cannabinoid-receptor antagonists. These effects are blocked by pertussis 
toxin, an inhibitor of G proteins, suggesting that another G-protein 
receptor may be involved--and could be involved in anandamide's actions 
in other organs, Devane says. 

Makriyannis and other researchers believe that understanding 
anandamide's interactions with the cannabinoid receptors will help 
researchers understand the physiological effects of marijuana use. It 
will also allow researchers to design anandamide derivatives better able 
to provide the beneficial effects of medical marijuana-including the 
reduction of nausea in people receiving cancer chemotherapy--without the 
psychotropic and immune-system effects, they say. 

"People are fighting about whether to legalize the medical use of 
marijuana," Dey says. "I believe that money could be better spent on 
developing drugs based on anandamide, which is a natural product [in 
humans]," he concludes. 

[Fig. 2] [delta]9-tetrahydrocannabinol (upper left), the active 
ingredient in marijuana, has only a passing resemblance to the 
endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (upper right). However, both molecules 
fit into the same binding site of the brain-type cannabinoid receptor 
protein (lower left and right), which is also found in the uterus and 
early embryo. [Courtesy Patricia Reggio, Kennesaw State College, 
Kennesaw, Ga.] 

- --David L. Lewin

------------------------------

Subj: ART: Illegal plant grown for medicine, man claims
From: 
Date: Fri, 18 Dec 1998 08:28:17 -0600 (CST)

This is from the article:

"Khat is illegal in the United States because it contains an 
amphetamine-like substance in the same category as heroin."

Ya learns sumthin new everyday. ;)  

Too bad there's no byline on AP stories. Somebody's grossly misinformed.

From the 12-18-98 Houston Chronicle
http://www.chron.com


- ---------------------------------------------
Illegal plant grown for medicine, man claims

SAN JOSE, Calif. (AP) -- The first person in this country arrested for 
growing a rare and exotic East African stimulant claimed on Thursday 
that he was cultivating the plant for medicinal purposes. 

Musa Ahmed Gelan, 40, of Prunedale, Calif., pleaded innocent in U.S. 
District Court to manufacturing a controlled substance known as khat, 
pronounced "cot." His lawyer, Donald Foley, said Gelan was growing khat 
to help control his diabetes. 

"He had no idea anything was illegal about this," Foley said. "The 
plants are part of his ethnic background." 

If convicted, Gelan could face up to 20 years in prison. 

The leafy, reddish khat is popular with people in Ethiopia, Somalia and 
Tanzania, and the Middle Eastern country of Yemen, Gelan's homeland. 
When chewed, users say it produces a mild euphoria. 

Khat is illegal in the United States because it contains an 
amphetamine-like substance in the same category as heroin. 

Gelan was arrested in September when federal and state authorities 
raided his quarter-acre field and seized more than 1,000 plants. Drug 
enforcement officials said it was the first outdoor khat plantation 
discovered in the country. 

------------------------------

Subj: OPINION: Money-laundering inquiries could invade your privacy 
From: 
Date: Fri, 18 Dec 1998 09:03:45 -0600 (CST)

It's pretty darn cool seeing an anti-drug war opinion
piece in the business section.

From the 12-17-98 Ft. Worth Star-Telegram
http://www.startelegram.com


- ---------------------
Business Columnists 
- ------------------------------------------------------------------------
Todd Mason       
- ------------------------------------------------------------------------
Updated: Wednesday, Dec. 16, 1998 at 20:10 CST 
Money-laundering inquiries could invade your privacy 

What's happening in Washington besides all Monica all the time?
Here's an interesting item: Federal banking regulators want to draft 
your banker in the war against drugs. 

They want banks and thrifts to draw up specific rules about what they 
need to know about you and me to make sure we aren't laundering money. 
They want financial institutions to designate a vice president in charge 
of suspicious accounts.

It is "fundamental for safe and sound operations that financial 
institutions take reasonable measures to identify their customers, 
understand the legitimate transactions typically conducted by those 
customers, and, consequently, identify those transactions conducted by 
their customers that are unusual or suspicious in nature," the Federal 
Deposit Insurance Corp declares.

The rule would apply to all financial institutions and all customers, 
large and small. It's being proposed simultaneously by the FDIC, the 
Federal Reserve, the Comptroller of Currency and the Office of Thrift 
Supervision.

The FDIC, for its part, specifically invites comment on whether it needs 
to be all-inclusive. You'll find the proposed rule and an email link at 
www.fdic.gov.

This is dangerous ground, gentle readers. No one would mistake me for 
someone with gobs of cash, which is the given in money laundering. But 
my finances are just strange enough that I could fall under suspicion if 
my bank put Barney Fife in charge.

It gets worse. Banks may soon be unraveling the ownership of trust or 
business accounts that won't pass muster with ex-wives, say, even if 
they comply with the Bank Secrecy Act.

Don't assume that tougher rules will catch the bad guys. Folks who 
deposit gobs of cash earn deference at the bank, as a rule, rather than 
close questioning.

A case in point: Raul Salinas, elder brother of former Mexican President 
Carlos Salinas, used Citibank to move $100 million to Switzerland 
between 1988 and 1994. The bank handled the transfers even though R. 
Salinas earned only $190,000 a year as a public official.

The bank told The Washington Post that it thought the money came from 
the sale of a construction company. The bank said its officers didn't 
seek details, in apparent violation of its voluntary know-your-customer 
policy.

Citibank denies wrongdoing, as does Salinas, and the bank hasn't been 
charged. Prosecutors must show that a bank willfully disregarded the 
illicit source of transferred funds in order to win convictions.

The proposed rule would give regulators an administrative remedy in 
cases that fall short of criminal wrongdoing. Regulators have 
considerable power to address problems that affect safety and soundness.

So what should banks know about their customers? The FDIC says banks 
should know their customers' true identities, their customary sources of 
funds, and their pattern of "normal and expected transactions."

The regulators leave the implementation to the banks, except to suggest 
that banks set priorities based on motive and opportunity.

In the case of wage earners, "it should be relatively simple task to 
identify and document the source of funds as payroll deposits," the FDIC 
says.

Oh? The Internal Revenue Service routinely targets waiters, taxi drivers 
and others who deal primarily in cash. I'm guessing that the most 
successful of these workers would be suspicious characters down at the 
bank also.

Businesses and individuals with ties to Mexico would automatically 
incite doubt. So would private banking customers with complicated 
finances. Rich customers, at least, would be worth the trouble from the 
bank's point of view.

I don't want to sound too hysterical. Maybe the regulators can strike a 
balance that respects privacy and motivates the banks to turn away drug 
money.

We should be talking about it. Unlike Monica, this one matters.
Todd Mason's column runs Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Sundays. Phone: 
390-7552; fax, 390-7774; e-mail:  

Send Your Comments to the Editor!
Include your name and email address.
Email Address  

------------------------------

End of Maptalk-Digest V98 #497
******************************

Mark Greer ()         ___ ___     _ _  _ _
Media Awareness Project              /' _ ` _ `\ /'_`)('_`\
P. O. Box 651                        | ( ) ( ) |( (_| || (_) )
Porterville, CA 93258                (_) (_) (_) \__,_)| ,__/
(800) 266-5759                                         | |
URL: http://www.mapinc.org/lists/                      (_)

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