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Maptalk-Digest Friday, December 31 1999 Volume 99 : Number 548

Gott in Himmel
    From: allan wilkinson <>
Re: marjuina use (fwd)
    From:  (Matt Elrod)
marjuina use (fwd)
    From:  (Matt Elrod)
Re: marjuina use
    From: "RLRoot" <>
Discovery Channel Response on Cannabis History
    From: Involuntary <>


----------------------------------------------------------------------

Subj: Gott in Himmel
From: allan wilkinson <>
Date: Fri, 31 Dec 1999 12:27:29 -0500

Hey friends,
The message is in Norwegian.  Can do a little Deutsch myself but Norski is
another matter.
Try Bablefish.

allan

------------------------------

Subj: Re: marjuina use (fwd)
From:  (Matt Elrod)
Date: Fri, 31 Dec 1999 09:57:26 -0800

- -------- Forwarded message --------
Date: Fri, 31 Dec 1999 08:40:28 -0800
From:  (Matt Elrod)
To: 
Subject: Re: marjuina use

Hi David, you wrote:

}I think you people are extremely foolish,navive,and manipultive. First
}let me help to enlighten you on the facts,since your a little confused .
}We make weed illegal in this country because it leads to use of heavier
}drugs cocaine,lsd,acid,and numerous other things.

Actually, the "Gateway Theory" has long since been debunked and
abandoned.  Cannabis was originally prohibited in 1937 because it was
believed to cause "reefer madness" and because it was primarily used by
people of color. In fact, Harry Anslinger, the primary proponent of
cannabis prohibition, specifically testified that cannabis use does NOT
lead to other drug use.

Factbook : Gateway Theory

In March 1999, the Institute of Medicine issued a report on various
aspects of marijuana, including the so-called, Gateway Theory (the
theory that using marijuana leads people to use harder drugs like
cocaine and heroin). The IOM stated, "There is no conclusive evidence
that the drug effects of marijuana are causally linked to the
subsequent abuse of other illicit drugs."

 Source: Janet E. Joy, Stanley J. Watson, Jr., and John A Benson, Jr.
 (1999). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. Division
 of Neuroscience and Behavioral Research, Institute of Medicine.
 Washington, DC:  National Academy Press.

The Institute of Medicine's 1999 report on marijuana explained that
marijuana has been mistaken for a gateway drug in the past because,
"Patterns in progression of drug use from adolescence to adulthood are
strikingly regular. Because it is the most widely used illicit drug,
marijuana is predictably the first illicit drug most people encounter.
Not surprisingly, most users of other illicit drugs have used marijuana
first. In fact, most drug users begin with alcohol and nicotine before
marijuana- usually before they are of legal age."

 Source: Janet E. Joy, Stanley J. Watson, Jr., and John A Benson, Jr.
 (1999). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. Division
 of Neuroscience and Behavioral Research, Institute of Medicine.
 Washington, DC:  National Academy Press.

Over 71 million Americans have used marijuana, yet for every 104
marijuana users, there is only one active, regular user of cocaine.

 Source:  Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration, National
 Household Survey on Drug Abuse:  Population Estimates 1997, Rockville, MD:
 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (1998, July), p. 23 and
 p. 113 [an "active, regular user of cocaine" is someone who used cocaine
 51 or more days in the past year].

The World Health Organization's investigation into the gateway effect
of marijuana stated emphatically that the theory that marijuana use by
adolescents leads to heroin use is the least likely of all hypotheses.

 Source: Hall, W., Room, R. & Bondy, S., WHO Project on Health
 Implications of Cannabis Use: A Comparative Appraisal of the Health
 and Psychological Consequences of Alcohol, Cannabis, Nicotine and
 Opiate Use, August 28, 1995, Geneva, Switzerland: World Health
 Organization (1998, March).

The World Health Organization noted the effects of prohibition in its
March 1998 study, when it stated that "exposure to other drugs when
purchasing cannabis on the black market, increases the opportunity to
use other illicit drugs."

 Source: Hall, W., Room, R. & Bondy, S., WHO Project on Health
 Implications of Cannabis Use: A Comparative Appraisal of the Health
 and Psychological Consequences of Alcohol, Cannabis, Nicotine and
 Opiate Use, August 28, 1995, Geneva, Switzerland: World Health
 Organization (1998, March).

According to CASA (National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse),
there is no proof that a causal relationship exists between cigarettes,
alcohol, marijuana and other drugs. Basic scientific and clinical
research establishing causality does not exist.

 Source: Merrill, J.C. & Fox, K.S., Cigarettes, Alcohol, Marijuana:
 Gateways to Illicit Drug Use, Introduction, New York, NY:  National
 Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (1994,
 October).

The gateway theory takes a statistical association between an extremely
popular behavior, marijuana use, and an unpopular behavior, cocaine
use, and then implies that one causes the other. There is no evidence
to this assertion, and CASA (National Center on Addiction and Substance
Abuse) acknowledges that it has not been able to determine if there is
any causal relationship between the two.

 Source:  Merrill, J. C. & Fox., K.S., Cigarettes, Alcohol,
 Marijuana:  Gateways to Illicit Drug Use, New York, NY :  The National
 Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (1994).

- --------------------------------------------------------------------------

}When you start to marjuaina you start to lose all ambition,you become
}addicted your grades fail and you become withdrawn.

Cannabis is not physically addictive. Less than 2% cannabis users are
daily chronic users.

Comparing Addictive Qualities of Popular Drugs

(Higher score indicates less serious effect)

Substance   Withdrawal Reinforcemt Tolerance Dependnce Intoxictn
- ----------- ---------- ----------- --------- --------- ---------
Nicotine        3           4         2           1          5
Heroin          2           2         1           2          2
Cocaine         4           1         4           3          3
Alcohol         1           3         3           4          1
Caffeine        5           6         5           5          6
Marijuana       6           5         6           6          4

Withdrawal: Presence and severity of characteristic withdrawal
symptoms.

Reinforcement: A measure of the substance's ability, in human and animal
tests, to get users to take it again and again, and in preference to other
substances.

Tolerance: How much of the substance is needed to satisfy increasing
cravings for it, and the level of stable need that is eventually reached.

Dependence: How difficult it is for the user to quit, the relapse rate,
the percentage of people who eventually become dependent, the rating
users give their own need for the substance and the degree to which the
substance will be used in the face of evidence that it causes harm.

Intoxication: Though not usually counted as a measure of addiction in
itself, the level of intoxication is associated with addiction and
increases the personal and social damage a substance may do.

 Source: Dr. Jack E. Henningfield, Ph.D. for NIDA. Reported by: Philip J.
 Hilts, New York Times, Aug. 2, 1994 "Is Nicotine Addictive? It Depends
 on Whose Criteria You Use."

- ------------------------------------------------------------------------

"Amotivational Syndrome" has also been debunked and abandoned.

Factbook : Marijuana

Some claim that cannabis use leads to "adult amotivation." The WHO
report addresses the issue and states, "it is doubtful that cannabis
use produces a well defined amotivational syndrome." The report also
notes that the value of studies which support the "adult amotivation"
theory are "limited by their small sample sizes" and lack of
representative social/cultural groups.

 Source: Hall, W., Room, R. & Bondy, S., WHO Project on Health
 Implications of Cannabis Use: A Comparative Appraisal of the Health
 and Psychological Consequences of Alcohol, Cannabis, Nicotine and
 Opiate Use, August 28, 1995, Geneva, Switzerland: World Health
 Organization (1998, March).

}I don't know if you know this or not you probaly don't that some of
}the heavist drug users of our time stared with marjuaina.People like
}John Belushi,River Phoenix,and others like Keith Richards.

Odds are these people tried tobacco first. However, that does not
mean that tobacco, any more than mother's milk, leads to hard drugs.

}I think you should be very ashamed of your selves ,
}People like you are the reason that the drug culture is never going to
}change. Thank you for being part of the problem and not the solution.

It is like this David; Even if cannabis is as bad as you think it is,
cannabis prohibition does not help.  Teens consistently report that
cannabis is easier to obtain than beer.

1. Despite the fact that federal spending on the drug war increased
from $1.65 billion in 1982 to $16.1 billion in 1998, more than half of
the students in the United States in 1998 tried an illegal drug before
they graduated from high school.

 Source:  Office of National Drug Control Policy, National Drug
 Control Strategy: Budget Summary, Washington D.C.:  U.S. Government
 Printing Office (1992), pp. 212-214; Office of National Drug Control
 Policy, The National Drug Control Strategy, 1999:  Budget Summary,
 Washington D.C.:  U.S. Government Printing Office (1999), p. 1, figure 1;
 Johnston, L., Bachman, J. & O'Malley, P., National Survey Results from
 the Monitoring the Future Study, online version.

2. Every year from 1975 to 1998, at least 82% of high school seniors
surveyed have said they find marijuana "fairly easy" or "very easy" to
obtain.  In 1998, 90% of high school seniors said it was fairly or very
easy to obtain.

 Source:  Johnston, L., Bachman, J. & O'Malley, P., National
 Survey Results from the Monitoring the Future Study, Vol. 1,
 Washington D.C.:  U.S. Government Printing Office (1996), p. 270, Table 30;
 online version of MTF survey.

3. The Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse reports that teenagers
consider finding marijuana even easier to obtain than beer.

 Source: Luntz Research Companies, National Survey of American
 Attitudes on Substance Abuse II: Teens and Their Parents, New York,
 NY:  National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia
 University (1996), Foreword by Joseph Califano.

There is no evidence that prohibiting cannabis reduces cannabis usage
rates.

Her Majesty the Queen vs. Victor Eugene Caine           April 20, 1998

REASONS FOR JUDGMENT

IV. (5) MARIHUANA: DOES PROHIBITION AFFECT RATES OF USE?

 In recent years, convictions for cannabis possession have fluctuated
 between 29,119 (1989) and 35,587 (1984). On average, 2,128
 individuals/year have been incarcerated for possession of cannabis.
 Between 1977-1985, 93% of all cannabis convictions were for simple
 possession and the majority of all narcotics convictions were for
 cannabis-related offences. (Note: disposition statistics for marihuana
 possession charges have not been published by the government since
 1985).

 It has been estimated that by the 1990's over 600,000 Canadians will
 have criminal records for cannabis related offences.

 As to the relationship between existence of penal sanctions and the
 prevalence of marihuana consumption, it should be noted that, since
 1969, the potential penalty for conviction of simple possession of
 marihuana on summary conviction has remained the same. Also, a jail
 sentence has been a much less likely prospect. Writing in 1982,
 Professor Boyd noted, "Since 1967 the percentage of individuals jailed
 for possession of marihuana dropped from 46% to 4.3%" (Exhibit 18,
 Defence Brandeis Brief, Tab 1: "The Question of Marihuana Control: Is
 "De Minimis" Appropriate, Your Honour?", Criminal Law Quarterly 212 at
 223)

 Thus, in Canada, it would appear that the variations in consumption
 rates noted above (in particular, the decline in consumption since
 1969) have occurred with no apparent statistical relationship to any
 increase or decrease in the severity of the law or its application.

 This phenomenon is not unique to Canada. In the Netherlands, where
 marihuana use has been de facto decriminalized since 1976 (the law is
 not enforced if the amount in question is 30 grams or less), there was
 some increase in usage following implementation of this policy.
 Unfortunately, statistics for consumption rates prior to the adoption
 of the non-enforcement policy were not kept; hence, it is difficult to
 draw any confident conclusions from the Netherlands experience. It is
 of some note, however, that the consumption rates in the Netherlands,
 under the non-enforcement policy, remain well below those of the
 United States of America which maintains the most punitive approach
 toward marihuana.

 Since 1987 in South Australia and 1992 in the Australian Capital
 Territory, an "expiation" scheme has been in place in cases of simple
 possession of small amounts of cannabis. Under these schemes, the
 offender may pay a small fine, thereby avoiding criminal conviction
 and record. Studies by South Australian Office of Crime Statistics
 found that these schemes did not result in any significant increase in
 the number or type of persons caught using marihuana. Again, in those
 American states (11) which have reduced the possession of marihuana
 from a criminal offence to a regulatory offence (enforced by way of a
 ticket or fine), consumption rates do not appear to have been
 significantly affected. These rates are not out of line with the rates
 of use in comparable states where possession of marihuana is
 punishable by imprisonment. At times they are actually lower,
 suggesting that marihuana consumption rates tend to rise and fall
 independent of the law.

So, the bottom line is, even if cannabis were as addictive as tobacco,
as mind-altering as alcohol and as deadly as sloth and obesity, it
still would not make sense to abdicate its distribution to organized
criminals who will cheerfully sell the substance to anyone of any age,
anytime, anywhere, no questions asked.

If you are concerned about cannabis, you should urge your government to
implement the recommendations of *every* major government commissioned
study on drug policy.

Since 1969, government-appointed commissions in the United States,
Canada, England, Australia, and the Netherlands concluded, after
reviewing the scientific evidence, that marijuana's dangers had
previously been greatly exaggerated, and urged lawmakers to drastically
reduce or eliminate penalties for marijuana possession.

 Source: Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence, Cannabis, London, England:
 Her Majesty's Stationery Office (1969); Canadian Government Commission of
 Inquiry, The Non-Medical Use of Drugs, Ottawa, Canada:  Information Canada
 (1970); The National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse, Marihuana: A
 Signal of Misunderstanding, (Nixon-Shafer Report) (1972); Werkgroep
 Verdovende Middelen, Background and Risks of Drug Use, The Hague, The
 Netherlands: Staatsuigeverij (1972); Senate Standing Committee on Social
 Welfare, Drug Problems in Australia--An Intoxicated Society, Canberra,
 Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service (1977).

You can read these studies for yourself at http://www.druglibrary.org/

Happy New Year!

Matthew Elrod


------------------------------

Subj: marjuina use (fwd)
From:  (Matt Elrod)
Date: Fri, 31 Dec 1999 09:56:43 -0800

- -------- Forwarded message --------
Date: Fri, 31 Dec 1999 11:46:54 -0500
From: David Lecorchick <>
To: 
Subject: marjuina use

I think you people are extremely foolish,navive,and manipultive. First
let me help to enlighten you on the facts,since your a little confused .
We make weed illegal in this country because it leads to use of heavier
drugs cocaine,lsd,acid,and numerous other things.When you start to
marjuaina you start to lose all ambition,you become addicted your grades
fail and you become withdrawn. I don't know if you know this or not you
probaly don't that some of the heavist drug users of our time stared
with marjuaina.People like John Belushi,River Phoenix,and others like
Keith Richards. I think you should be very ashamed of your selves ,
People like you are the reason that the drug culture is never going to
change. Thank you for being part of the problem and not the solution.
               Sincerly,
               David Lecorchick

------------------------------

Subj: Re: marjuina use
From: "RLRoot" <>
Date: Fri, 31 Dec 1999 15:53:57 -0800

>From: David Lecorchick <>
>Subject: marijuana use
>
>I think you people are extremely foolish,navive,and manipultive. First
>let me help to enlighten you on the facts,since your a little confused .

That is your opinion, Dave, and you certainly are entitled to your opinion.
However harmful to society your opinion is though, you still have the
liberty to speak out as you wish, and I will stand up for your right as is
necessary, as long as you exercise that liberty in a manner that does not
infringe on the liberty of others.

>We make weed illegal in this country because it leads to use of heavier
>drugs cocaine,lsd,acid,and numerous other things.When you start to
>marjuaina you start to lose all ambition,you become addicted your grades
>fail and you become withdrawn.

To whom does the individual owe a need to be ambitious? To not be withdrawn?
Is it not my right to live my life as I choose, to be as much or as little
as I desire?  Should we outlaw vacations?  They are terribly unproductive.

>I don't know if you know this or not you
>probaly don't that some of the heavist drug users of our time stared
>with marjuaina.People like John Belushi,River Phoenix,and others like
>Keith Richards. I think you should be very ashamed of your selves ,
>People like you are the reason that the drug culture is never going to
>change.

And I think you should be ashamed of yourself.  Some of the cruelest people
this planet has ever known started out by advocating that others should
conform to their way of thinking.  People like Hitler, Stalin, Khan... the
list of despots is endless.  Maybe we should outlaw authoritarian thought
because it is a gateway to fascism.  And maybe you should review a list of
the people who have had remarkable accomplishments even though they've used
marijuana and other drugs we have outlawed in this century.  The vast
majority are indeed responsible with their liberties.

Although you stated that you were going to present facts, you have merely
presented rhetoric, and yes, I have answered with rhetoric.  If you want to
discuss facts then let's start with where the real harms to society are
felt; not nearly so much from using drugs as from the prohibition of drugs.

>Thank you for being part of the problem and not the solution.
>              Sincerly,
>               David Lecorchick

Living in a society that recognizes Liberty as a natural birth right, no man
should have the authority to prohibit the peaceful, non-intrusive
activities of another.  Just because some do not have the ability to
exercise responsibility when using drugs should be no reason to subject
others to your whims.  Many substances, activities, and goods (legal and
illegal) can be harmful when abused.  From automobiles to alcohol to rock
climbing and on and on.  But we do not outlaw these substances, activities,
and goods.  We outlaw the conduct detrimental to society that can result
when these things are abused.

You have bought into the myths hook, line, and sinker.  Open your mind and
give reason a chance.  Can you solve our problems through prohibition?  Do
you honestly feel that prohibition can stop the use of drugs?  Even those
who conduct this war against people know that's impossible.  They may not
admit it but they continue this war for one reason only... it's a
multi-billion dollar industry.

In Liberty, I am,

Very Sincerely Yours,

Rick Root

P.S.  Maybe you should start smoking marijuana.  It might make you more
aware of your spelling, punctuation, and spacing.

------------------------------

Subj: Discovery Channel Response on Cannabis History
From: Involuntary <>
Date: Fri, 31 Dec 1999 18:18:33 -0600

Well, here's the response I got from Discovery about the letter I sent
asking for a program about the history of cannabis use around the world.
At least they sent it to viewer relations department. :-)

Forwarded E-Mail Message
Fri, 31 Dec 1999 13:19:14 -0500
Re: Discovery Program on Cannabis?
- --------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bonnie <> posted:

At 08:13 12/25/99 +0000, you wrote:
>We live in a world with an abundance and variety of life, both plants
>and animals.  In the plant kingdom there exists a plant called cananbis
>or marijuana.  Today there seems to be a societal terror surrounding
>this plant, though it has been used by humans around the world for
>thousands of years in the past.  Is it possible for Discovery to make a
>television program tracing the use of cannabis into ancient times to
>perhaps uncover why, in only the last 80 years out of over 5,000 years
>of recorded history, has cannabis become an evil plant with its roots in
>hell?  What was cannabis used for in ancient times?
>
>The Discovery Channel never ceases to amaze me with balanced stories
>exploring both the pros and cons of many topics, yet this is one topic
>I've never seen covered on any of Discovery's channels.  At this time,
>such a program would likely be popular since there is a rising debate
>over the use of medical marijuana and the recreational use of marijuana.
>What are the roots of fascination with this plant?  What would the
>result be if we used cannabis today for the same things that the
>ancients used it for?
>
>Thanks for reading

I forwarded your letter to the TV side of Discovery Channel
<>.  Due to the high volume of requests,
it may take up to two weeks for them to get back to you.  If you'd like
a quicker response, you can call them at the toll-free number
1-888-404-5969 Monday - Friday 8 AM - 6 PM EST.

Thanks for checking out Discovery Online!

Regards,


------------------------------

End of Maptalk-Digest V99 #548
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Media Awareness Project              /' _ ` _ `\ /'_`)('_`\
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